The five-year environmental protection plan was first issued in the name of the State Council. In the past, such a plan was only a ministerial document of the environmental protection department. According to the 11th Five-Year Plan for Environmental Protection just released, the bottom line of the budget is that the investment in environmental protection should exceed 1.35% of GDP.
This plan was issued in the name of State Council Document No. 37, and has been legally effective. Zhou Shengxian, director of the State Environmental Protection Administration, said today that it reminded local governments once again that pollutant reduction and improvement of environmental quality are the solemn commitments of the Chinese government to the people, and they should not lose faith in the people.
According to the plan, by 2010, except chemical oxygen demand and sulphur dioxide, which are two major pollutants, will be reduced by 10% compared with 2005, the proportion of inferior five types of water quality in state-controlled sections will be reduced by 4 percentage points, controlled below 22%, while the proportion of three types of water will be increased by 2 percentage points; in air quality, the number of second-class days will exceed 292 days. More than 75% of cities.
Drinking water safety is the first problem
In this 80,000-word plan, the primary task is to ensure the safety of drinking water for urban and rural people. Zhou Shengxian said that the first step for environmental protection departments to do is to achieve the main indicators of important drinking water sources by the end of 2008.
Experts from the Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning say that drinking water safety is the top priority. It is a simple word in the planning, but behind it is a series of major environmental actions. For example, to close all sewage outlets in the water source protection area, we need to establish an early warning system for the safety of drinking water sources and make emergency treatment when pollution accidents occur. In addition, in order to reassure the people of drinking water, the environmental protection department will carry out at least one water quality comprehensive analysis and monitoring of centralized drinking water sources every year, and timely announce the water environment status.
In fact, since last year, the supervision of drinking water sources has become a key word for environmental protection departments to implement environmental law enforcement. In 2006, the environmental protection department dispatched 126,000 law enforcement officers to inspect more than 10,000 drinking water sources and water intake points. 1,903 illegal enterprises were investigated and dealt with, and 88 responsible persons were dealt with due to inadequate supervision of drinking water issues.
Environmental protection investment should exceed 1.35% of GDP.
Zou Shoumin, president of the Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning, said that in order to improve China's environmental quality in 2010, a large amount of money would have to be invested. The bottom line of the 11th Five-Year Plan is that the investment in environmental protection must exceed 1.35% of GDP. In the last five-year plan, China's environmental investment accounted for just over 1% of GDP.
Experts calculated that during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, China needed 640 billion yuan for water pollution control and 600 billion yuan for air pollution control. Where does such a huge sum of money come from? The plan says that the government, enterprises and social forces should take part in each. Local governments mainly take money for key river basin management, nature reserve construction, rural environmental improvement and environmental supervision capacity-building, and the central government differentiates and supports them. The pollution control expenses of enterprises shall be solved by enterprises using their own funds or bank loans.
Zou introduced that during the Eleventh Five-Year Plan period, it is estimated that 75 billion yuan will be levied for pollution control to attract banks, especially policy banks, to actively support environmental protection projects in the form of subsidies or discounts.
Environmental regulatory capacity was first mentioned
Some grass-roots EPA equipments are inferior even to the laboratories of middle schools. After pollution accidents occur in some places, environmental law enforcement officers can only sniff through their noses... Zhou Shengxian has repeatedly used this example to express his shock at the difficulty of law enforcement in grass-roots environmental protection departments.
Today, Zhou Jian, deputy director of the General Administration of Environmental Protection, said that the 11th Five-Year Plan seeks to change this situation. For the first time, it mentions the need to improve the ability of environmental supervision, including the establishment of advanced environmental monitoring and early warning system, the establishment of a complete environmental law enforcement supervision system and environmental accident emergency response system.
According to the planning arrangement, China will build a national environmental emergency monitoring network and command center, and the provinces and municipalities should establish corresponding environmental emergency command system. The state, provinces, municipalities and river basins are equipped with emergency monitoring vehicles and instruments for water and air environmental accidents, and emergency monitoring vessels are equipped for key seaports and inland river ports.
Publish the report card every six months
During the Tenth Five-Year Plan period, from the central government to the local government, there were no hard restrictions on those who failed in environmental protection. Wang Jinnan, Vice President of the Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning, said that in compiling the "11th Five-Year Plan" for environmental protection, experts specially designed to publish the results sheets of emission reduction every six months, in order to constantly play a drum for local governments.
The plan also defines the responsibilities of the central government and local governments. For example, SEPA should strengthen the assessment, planning, macro-control and guidance and supervision of national environmental protection, speed up the establishment of regional inspection agencies, coordinate cross-border pollution, and investigate and deal with prominent environmental violations. Local governments are responsible for regional environmental quality and must be responsible for the environmental quality within their jurisdiction.